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Private Pilot Ground School モドキ

使い方: 上から順番に、各項目を理解していって下さい。 例えば「この単語の意味は」、「この文章の意味は?」と 一つ一つ理解しながら行って下さい。 分からない事などがあれば、必要に応じてテキストを読むかこのサイトに掲載されているTOPICを読んで下さい。 それでも、分からない所は私に質問して下さい。 もちろんネットで調べても良いでしょうし、知り合いのパイロットや教官、もしくは行こうとする学校に聞いても良いでしょう。 最後まで行けば、大半の事は学べるでしょう。

主に筆記試験の合格を目標にしていますので完璧ではありません。最終的には貴方の教官の指示に従って下さいね。
日本国内で、勉強方法が分からない人向けにと思っています。実機で無いと理解できない所も有ります。

お願い: 一人で作ったので、抜けている所が有るのは確実ですが、気づかない物です。 
これは!変だぞ、抜けてるぞ! と言う物があれば、是非、メールか何かでお知らせください。 教官さんからの報告も嬉しいです。 

A. INTRODUCTION

  • Parts of Airplane
      • Know the major parts on an airplane, Fuselage, Wings, Empennage, Landing gears, and Powerplant.
        Understand major factions of major parts.
    1. Fuselage
      • Seats for passengers and pilot (Cabin)
      • Baggage Area
      • Makes an airplane
      • Instruments, flight controls, other parts are connected or installed, Body
      • holds engines, wings, tails, landing gears, antennas, and other
    2. Wing (main wings)
      • Creates Lift
      • Aileron
      • Flaps
      • Has Main (or only) Fuel Tank
    3. Empennage (Tail)
      • Vertical Stabilizer & Rudder
      • Horizontal Stabilizer & Elevator
    4. Landing gear
      • Tricycle (Main gear, Nose gear) vs. Conventional (Main gear, Tail wheel)
      • Fixed (simple, affordable and easy) vs. Retractable (faster, fuel efficient, and longer range)
    5. Powerplant
      • Engine (Reciprocating or Turbine Engines)
      • Propeller (Fixed or Constant-Speed, Adjustable)
  • Aircraft Classification (What is Aircraft? Airplane? What is different? Aircrafts are classified into small groups)
    1. Airman Certification (for pilots)
      • Category (Airplane, Rotorcraft, Glider and Lighter-than-Air)
      • Class (Airplane: Single or Multi Engine & Land or Sea, Rotorcraft: Helicopter or Gyroplane)
      • Type (e.g. Cessna 152, Boeing 787, Airbus 380, F-15)
    2. Aircraft Certification (for machine)
      • Category (Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, Commuter, Transport, Experiment......)
      • Class (Airplane, Gyroplane, Lighter-than-Air, Glider)
      • Type (e.g. Cessna 152, Boeing 787, Airbus 380, F-1

B. AERODYNAMICS

  1. 4 Aerodynamic Forces
    1. Lift
    2. Weight
    3. Thrust
    4. Drag
  2. 4 forces in straight and level flight
    1. Lift=Weight
    2. Thrust=Drag
    3. Lift is usually 5 to 8 time more than Thrust (depends on design and engine)
  3. Drag
    1. Parasite Drag (increases as speed increases, as frictions)
    2. Induced Drag (increases as speed decreases, or pitch increases)
    3. Total Drag = Parasite Drag + Induced Drag
  4. Angle of attack (AOA)
    • The angle between chord line and relative wind
    • Lift and Drag is created proportional to this AOA, not attitude
  5. Stall and Spin
    1. As angle of attack increases, the lift increase until Critical Angle of Attack
      1. The air flow separates over the air foil beyond this angle
      2. STALL (loss of lift will happens)
      3. Airfoil stalls at critical angle of attack regardless of CG, Weight, Density, etc.
    2. Spin is a kind of continuous stall with when one wing stalls more than the others.
      1. break a stall, follow manufactures (POH) instruction.
      2. if none is available
        1. power off
        2. aileron neutral
        3. full opposite rudder to stop the rotation
        4. reduce back pressure move briskly to break the stall
        5. as rotation stops, neutralize, and smooth recovery from dive
        6. then recover as other stall, watch out for secondary stall
      3. each airplane spins differently
    3. Airplane does not spin if it is not stalled
  6. Flight control
    • 3 Major Control surface
      1. Rudder
      2. Elevator
      3. Aileron
    • Three axes of airplane
          (1) Longitudinal axes
             Moving around longitudinal axes is ROLL which is controlled by AILERON.
          (2) Lateral axes
             Moving around lateral axis is PITCH which is controlled by ELEVATOR.
          (3) Vertical axes
             Moving around vertical axes is YAW which is controlled by RUDDER.
    • Center of Gravity (CG)
      • CG is the point at which three axis cross.
      • aircraft or objects moves around CG
    • Flaps
      • increase lift and drag by changing airfoil
        • slower airspeed for takeoff and landing.
        • slower stalling speed.
        • increase performance on landing and takeoff period
      • increases angle of descent without increasing airspeed.
      • decreases weight on landing gear at the moment of touch down.
      • helps to reduce landing and takeoff speed
      • Higher Drag in Cruise, so it will be retracted normal cruise
      Trim
      • relief pressure to help a pilot.
      • help to fly better
      • little tab on the edge of flight control surface.
        • moves opposite but localized lift moves flight control to desired position
      • some trim control only changes tension on control cable.
  7. Turning and Load Factor
    1. Turning
      1. To turn the airplane (or anything) it must have sideward force.
      2. You can create this sideward force by banking the airplane.
      3. The direction of lift is Inclined.
        1. One component of lift still acts vertically to oppose weight.
        2. The other component acts Horizontally to pull the airplane inside of the turn,
        3. 'Horizontal component of lift causes airplane to turn.
      4. During the turn vertical component of lift is decreased.
        1. To make level turn
        2. increase power, or
        3. increase angle of attack
    2. Load Factor
      1. Load supported by wing
        • Load Factor = (G) = Load / Actual Weight
      2. Load factor chart
        • Bank angle increase, Load Factor increase.
    3. Load Factor and Stall.
      1. Load Factor increase, stall speed increase.
      2. banked = Less Vertical Component of Lift
      3. Wings need to create more Lift at same airspeed => increase Angle of Attack
      4. Reaches Critical Angle of Attack at faster airspeed than Vs
  8. Stability
      • It is a characteristic of an airplane in flight that causes it to return to original condition after it is disturbed
      • "Stable airplane requires less effort to control"
    1. Bank Stability
      • Wing Dihedral
      • Location of Wing and CG (Low Wing and High Wing Airplane)
    2. Directional Stability
      • Vertical Stabilizer
    3. Pitch Stability and CG range
      • If the CG is located forward of forward limit of CG
        • The airplane is too stable 
        • It is hard to pitch up at takeoff and landing.
        • may not have enough control on landing.
      • If the CG is located rearward of aft limit of CG
        • The airplane became unstable.
        • It's hard to recover from stall, or may be impossible to recover from a spin.
        • (An airplane may fly faster)
      • It must stay certain range to fly safely.
    4. Pitch and power
      1. Prop wash causes stronger tail down force.
      2. If you reduce Power
      3. Less Prop wash
      4. Less tail down force
      5. Nose comes down.
      6. Constant angle of attack
      7. usually results Constant airspeed (if no pitch control is touched)
  9. Left Turning Tendency
      • High power & High angle of attack (Low airspeed)= Left turning tendency is the GREATEST
    1. Torque: Action (turning propeller to right) has reaction (banking airplane left).
    2. P-factor: Asymmetrical thrust (yaw to the left)
    3. Slip stream (Vertical Stabilizer to the right)
    4. Gyro precession (Tailwheel) The reaction to the force applied to gyro acts 90 degrees ahead of rotation.
      • this is not for nosewheel airplane (tri-cycle, e.g. C-172)
  10. Ground Effect
    • Increased Lift and Reduced Induced Drag near ground.
    • Airflow is deflected down by wingtip vortex.
    • near ground, vortex is blocked by ground and became weaker as plane get closer to the ground.
    • less wind vortex, less induced drag created.
      • a change in airflow by the ground.
      • Local air flow became less bended down = less tiled lift
      • Less tiled Lift = More lift and Less Induced Drag
    • happens in less than half of the length of wing span above ground.
      • increase as plane gets lower. More effect in a low wing airplane
    • It causes the airplane to
      • has more lift in ground effect and get stronger as it gets closer to the ground
      • Float during landing.
      • Become airborne before reaching recommended take off speed during takeoff.
      • This is NOT a recommended way of explaining, but
        • It is like cushioning effect of the air near ground

C. PERFORMANCE

  1. Performance and density
    1. Airplanes' performance determined by air density.
      • More Air Density = More Lift & More Power
    2. The density of air is decreased by following condition
      • High altitude
      • High temperature
      • High humidity
      • High Altitude or Low pressure
    3. Low density = Low performance
  2. Density altitude
    • Aircraft performance in Standard Atmosphere expressed in altitude to have better idea.
      • to know aircraft performance
    • Standard atmospheric condition.
      • At sea level = 15 degrees C, 29.92 in Hg.
      • Temperature = -2 degrees C/ 1000 ft (about)
      • Pressure = -1 in Hg/1000ft (about)
    • Density altitude Increase = Less Air (density)
      • Performance decrease.
      • Less Lift
      • Less Thrust
      • Slow climb
      • Longer takeoff and landing run
      • More accident (High Altitude Airport during Hot Summer)
    • pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature. (other way to explain)
  3. Density Altitude Chart
    • to determine density altitude with Pressure Altitude and Temperature
    • to predict performance of an aircraft on given day.
  4. Pressure Altitude
    • Indicated Altitude corrected for nonstandard pressure.
    • to determine the density altitude (and other performance of an aircraft)
    • Transponder Mode C and Flight Level use pressure altitude
  5. Performance Charts and Tables
    • Take off distance chart
    • Landing distance graph
    • Landing distance table
    • Cruise power setting
  6. Cross Wind Component Chart
    • on Landing in Strong Wind

D. WEIGHT AND BALANCE

    1. Why do we have to calculate weight and balance? (terms)
      • Weight 
      • Balance (CG Location)
    2. Weight
      • Aircraft 
      • Flight Crew and Passenger 
      • Baggage and Cargo
      • Fuel
      • Operating Fluids
    3. Empty Weight
      • Empty Weight is weight of an aircraft without people, fuel, and baggage
      • Standard Empty Weight = same for same type of aircraft
        • standard for each aircraft type
        • unusable fuel
        • full operating fluids (brake oil and others)
        • full engine oil
      • Basic Empty Weight
        • Standard Empty Weight + Optional Equipment
        • unique to each aircraft
        • need to check Aircraft's Weight and Balance Data
      • Gross Weight (as Loaded)
    4. Maximum Weight
      • Maximum Takeoff Weight
      • Maximum Landing Weight
      • Maximum Ramp Weight
      • Useful Load = Maximum Ramp Weight - Basic Empty Weight
    5. Weight and Balance Calculation
      1. Reference Point (Datum Line) 
      2. Weight
        • Add up all items
        • Total Weight must be less than Maximum Weight
        • If there is enough payload available, each person may be assumed to be 170 lbs.
        • Aviation Fuel = 6 lbs / Gallon
        • Engine Oil = 7.5 lbs / Gallon (if required to calculate)
      3. Balance
        • To find Location of CG for a safe operation
          • stability
          • recovery from stall and spin
          • landing characteristic
        • from Datum Line (each type is different)
        • CG Range
        • Total Moment / Total Weight = CG Location
      4. Moment
        • effect of distance and weight are expressed in numbers
        • distance x weight
        • a step to find CG Location
        • effect of each item
          • WEIGHT (lb) X ARM (in)= MOMENT (lb-in)
          • Add all Moments then divide it by total weight
        • Calculation (to find CG location)
      5. Find weight and distance for all item below (for each location)
          • Empty weight (from W+B Data)
          • Pilot
          • Passenger
          • Fuel
          • Oil (if required)
          • Baggage and Cargo
        1. Add up weight of all items to find Total Weight
        2. For each item, Weight multiply by arm (distance) to find its moment.
        3. Add up all the moment to calculate total Moment
        4. Total Moment divide by Total Weight = CG Location
        5. Check the CG location if it is within the limit
      6. Use of Weight and Balance Table and Chart (Graph)


    E. INSTRUMENTS

    1. Pitot static system
        1. measures Atmosphere
        2. compare with international standard atmosphere
          • 29.92 in Hg and 15 degree in C (59 in F)
          • -1 in Hg and -2 degrees per 1,000 feet
        3. Use Pitot Tube facing stragiht and Static Port loacated on side
        4. If a pitot tube clogged - Airspeed Indicator affected
        5. If a static port clogged - All Instruments affected
      1. Airspeed Indicator
        1. measures (impact pressure - static pressure) then convert to airspeed
        2. Arc on Airspeed Indicator
          • White arc = Flap operating range
          • Green arc = Normal operating range
          • Yellow arc = Caution range
          • Red line = Never exceed speed
        3. V-speed: Airspeed limitation, important airspeed of operation
          • Vso = Stalling speed at landing configuration.
          • Vs1 = Stalling speed at specific configuration.
          • Vfe = Maximum flap extended speed
          • Vno = Maximum structural cruising speed
          • Vne = Never exceed speed
        4. Following V-speeds are not shown on the airspeed Indicator, but they are very Important.
          • Va = Maneuvering speed
          • Vlo = Maximum landing gear operation speed
          • Vx = Best angle of climb
          • Vy = Best rate of climb
        5. gives Indicated Airspeed (not true, but all aircraft knows indicated)
      2. Altimeter
        1. measures static pressure, then coverts to altitude
        2. Altimeter setting
          • Prior for a takeoff
            • Set the current altimeter setting, or
            • Set the altimeter so that indicates the elevation of the airport
          • Above 18000ft
            • Set the altimeter 29.92, then it will be called all flight level (FL).
          • Altimeter Indication varies 1000 ft/1 in Hg.
        3. Altimeter error
          1. Pressure
            • Fly from high pressure area to low pressure area: Altimeter Indicates higher than true.
            • Fly from low pressure area to high pressure area: Altimeter Indicates lower than true.
          2. Temperature
            • Fly from hot area to cold area: Altimeter Indicates higher than true.
            • Fly from cold area to hot area: Altimeter Indicates lower than true.
          3. "Low and cold, Watch out below!"
        4. True altitude & absolute altitude
          • True altitude: The vertical distance of the aircraft above sea level.
          • Absolute altitude: The vertical distance of the aircraft above the surface.
        5. Pressure Altitude: when set to 29.92 to find True Altitude and Density Altitude
      3. Vertical Speed Indicator
        • measure difference in static pressure in time
        • indicates rate of change in altitude
        • slight delay
    2. Gyroscopic Instruments
        • Uses gyroscopic effect of a ROTATING object.
      1. Attitude Indicator (engine driven)
        1. Rigidity in Space (the axis is vertical)
        2. Set the miniature airplane to the horizon bar before each flight.
        3. artificial horizon stays and miniature airplane moves around.
      2. Heading Indicator (engine driven)
        1. Rigidity in Space (the axis is horizontal)
        2. Set it on known heading before and during each flight.
      3. Turn coordinator (electric driven) Precession
        • It Indicates yaw and roll. It shows rate of turn (380 degrees/2min = standard rate turn).
      4. some instrument on some aircraft uses different source for power
    3. Magnetic compass
      1. It is accurate only in straight-and-level unaccelerated flight. (and no disturbance)
      2. Deviation
        • It is caused by the magnetic field within the aircraft disturbing the line of magnetic force.
      3. Variation
        • Compass doesn't indicates true north, but magnetic north.
      4. Dip (magnetic dip)
      5. Turning error (NoSF)
        1. Turn from North = a compass indicates Opposite
          • Turning through north indicated the biggest delay
        2. Turn from South = a compass indicates Faster
          • Turning through South indicates ahead in the most amount.
        3. No turning error at East or West Heading
      6. Accelerating error (ANDS)
        1. on East or West Heading
          • Acceleration = Compass Indicates North
          • Deceleration = Compass Indicates Sooth
        2. No error on North/South

    F. AIRPLANE ENGINE and SUBSYSTEM

    1. Engine
      • produce power to turn propellers
      • pulls airplane forward
    2. Principle of Operations
      • 4-strokes & 5-events
      • Stroke: Intake, compression, combustion, exhaust
      • Event: Intake, compression, Ignition, power, exhaust
    3. Dual Ignition System
      • better performance
      • safety
    4. Mixture Control & Altitude
      • needs of mixture control:
      • thinner air at high altitude = enriches
      • needs of precautions in descending flight: get too lean
    5. Heat -problems in any engine-
      1. system prevent over heating
        • engine oil
          • to lubricates
          • to cool by circulations
          • to seal
          • to clean up (brings dirt to an oil filter)
          • to prevent corrosion and rust
        • fins (to dissipate heat into air)
        • baffle (circulate air)
        • curl flap (more air as needed)
      2. Overheating
        • loss of power
        • high oil consumption
        • excessive wear on Internal parts
      3. Cause of Overheating
        • climbing too steeply -too slow-
        • too much power
        • too lean mixture
        • not enough oil
        • wrong fuel (lower-than-specified)
      4. Corrective Action
        • increase airspeed (decent or level-off)
        • reduce power
        • enrich mixture
        • check oil level during a preflight
        • fill with correct aviation gasoline (avgas). If not available, use higher AVGAS
      5. Abnormal Combustion
        1. mostly caused by overheating
        2. detonation
          1. mixture explodes instead of burning normally
          2. loss of power, vibration, internal damage
        3. pre ignition
          1. uncontrolled combustion of fuel/air mixture
          2. in advance of normal ignition
          3. hot spot (carbon deposits, cracks..)
        4. in other cases, they are usually caused by pilot mistakes.
      6. Check Oil and Fuel,
        • use correct grade and type of fuel
        • oil level
        • engine room for any blockage,
        • aware of high temperature
    6. Carburetor (float type)
      1. to mix fuel with air at proper amount
      2. principle of a float-type carburetor
        • metering air pressure difference at Venturi throat near air-inlet.
      3. carburetor icing
        1. loss of power
        2. 20 to 70 degrees in F with high humidity
      4. use of carb heat
      5. hot air from exhaust muffler (heated, but not mixed)
        1. melts carb ice and prevents carb icing
        2. enriches mixture -loss of slight power-
      6. used in many training fleet, but being replaced in newer airplanes
    7. Fuel Injection (instead of a carburetor)
      1. better distribution of fuel = better performance
      2. less nor no carb ice (induction icing, blocked air inlet by ice)
    8. Constant-Speed Propeller
      1. a pilot can choose most efficient blade angle of propeller
        • not pitch angle, but angle of attack on prop
      2. propeller control - blade angle - RPM
      3. throttle control - engine output - manifold pressure
      4. power change
        • to increase (mixture, prop, then throttle)
        • to decrease (throttle, prop, then mixture)
    9. Good Operating Procedure
      1. Don't let tank dry before switching tank
        • vapor lock
        • air can clog fuel line (fluid)
      2. fill the tank after the flight
        • prevent moisture
      3. After starting an engine,
        • check engine oil pressure, adjust RPM
      4. Hand prop
        • have a competent pilot in the cockpit
        • you don't know what is going to happen
      5. Do walk around inspection for preflight
      6. MUST use a written checklist
        • all items in logical sequence
        • eliminates any omitting an important step.
      7. After long shortage
        • check damage and obstructions by insects and animals

G. AIRPORT Runway marking & lighting

  1. Runway marking
    1. Runway number = Magnetic course
    2. Displaced threshold
    3. Chevron: Never be used (nor enter) Emergency only.
    4. Hold Bar
      • needs a instruction (permission) to cross from a controller (from Solid Line)
      • At uncontrolled airport,stop, check, then cross.
    5. X-mark: Runway closed (or tells it is a taxiway, but not landing runway)
  2. Aiport Signs
    • Mandatory Instruction Signs
    • Location Signs
    • Direction Signs
    • Destination Signs
    • Information Signs
    • Runway Distance Remaining Signs
  3. Lighting
    1. Runway - White
    2. Taxi way - Blue
    3. Runway end - Red
    4. Threshold - Green
    5. A Pilot controlling light
      1. Pilot can control the Intensity of the runway light at certain airport by clicking the switch of the microphone.
      2. Click 7 times - High intensity
      3. 5 times - Middle intensity
      4. 3 times - Low Intensity
    6. Approach lights and other light
  4. Airport beacon
    1. White & Green - Civil airport
    2. White @ White & Green - Military airport
    3. It rotates ....
      1. from sunset to sunrise, or
      2. during below VFR weather minimum "ceiling - Less than 1000ft or visibility-Less than 3 mile."
    4. may not be accurate indication of weather or time
  5. Airport traffic pattern
    1. Standard pattern = Left traffic pattern
    2. Departure (Upwind Leg)
    3. Crosswind Leg
    4. Downwind Leg
    5. Entry (45 Leg)
    6. Base Leg
    7. Final (Final Approach)
  6. Segmented circle
    1. It Indicates direction of turn (pattern)
  7. Visual Glide slope Indicators
    1. By FAR, You have to stay AT or ABOVE glide slope.
    2. Glide slope = The best approach course for that runway. (maybe)
    3. Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)
      • on glide slope (two red and two white) or (one red and one white)
      • red = too low
      • white = too high
    4. Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)
    5. Standard VASI
      • 2-Bar: Red and White = on Glide path
      • 3-Bar:
        • Two Red and a White = on Glide Path for a small airplane
        • One Red and Two White = On Glide Path for a larger airplane.
      • All White = too high
      • All Red = too low (= danger)
    6. Tri-color VASI
      • Amber - High
      • Green - At glide slope
      • Red - Low
    7. There IS other kinds of indicator, but too rare.
  8. Land and Hold Short Operation (LAHSO)
    1. may be used at a busy airport with crossing runways.
    2. to effectively use multiple runways.
    3. a pilot can decline or accept (read back)
      1. student pilot should never accept LAHSO
      2. if you are not familiar with a plane or have any doubt, decline.

H. AIRSPACE

    1. Controlled Airspace and Uncontrolled Airspace
      1. ATC service
      2. Instrument Flying
      3. VFR Weather Minimum Requirement
        • they are only minimum by law, does not mean safe
      4. ABC of Airspace
    2. Class A Airspace
      1. from 18,000 ft to FL600
      2. Altimeter setting 29.92
      3. Only IFR flight is permitted
    3. Class B Airspace
      1. To enter Class-B you are required to
        • establish Two-way radio communication with ATC
        • have operating Transponder with mode-C
        • ATC clearance ("cleared to enter ....." from ATC.)
        • hold at least Private Pilot or endorsement from an instructor
      2. To fly within 30 NM from primary airport you are required.
      3. Transponder with mode-C
      4. check FAR for latest information (FAR 91.131)
    4. Class C Airspace
      • To enter Class-C. you are required to
        • establish Two-way radio communication with ATC
        • Transponder with mode-C.
      • ATC service s are provided for all aircraft.
      • check FAR for the latest information (FAR 91.130)
    5. Class D Airspace
      • at all tower airport
      • established two-way radio communication
      • Takeoff, Landing and Taxi Clearances are needed
    6. Class E Airspace
      1. makes most of US airspace under Controlled Airspace.
        1. to protect IFR AIRCRAFTs
      2. we operates most of times in this airspace.
      3. ATC service are available
      4. ALL IFR Traffics are under ATC control
        • guaranteed separation from all other IFR traffic
      5. For VFR Aircraft
        • higher VFR requirements (TO PROTECT IFR AIRCRAFT)
        • may receive ATC service when workload permits (such as Traffic Followings)
      6. Area
        1. For all Area (mainland and Alaska)
          • 14500feet to Class A Airspace (18,000 feet)
        2. Federal airway ( = Victor airway )
          • It is airway from one VOR to another VOR (Some are NDB, some)
          • More and More GPS (or RNAV) defined Waypoint.
          • 1,200 feet AGL up to 18,000 feet
        3. Surface Area
          • Dashed Lines (or Class D)
          • Extension (added to Class B, C and D)
        4. Transition
          1. begins 700 AGL or 1,,200 feet AGL
        5. En Route Domestic Areas (other area for protecting IFR)
      7. No specific requirements for Pilot Certificate nor Equipment.
    7. Special VFR
      1. When the weather is below VFR minimum
      2. When reported Visibility is more than 1 mile (if no ground, then flight visibility)
      3. You can request SPECIAL VFR.
        • Receive Special VFR Clearance from ATC
        • at least 1 mile visibility AND clear of cloud
      4. To fly special VFR at night.,.
        • The pilot - Instrument rated
        • The airplane Instrument equipment and ready for IFR
      5. Only one aircraft may stay in area under special VFR,
    8. Uncontrolled Airspace
      • Class G Airspace
      • Less VFR Weather minimum (IFR aircraft is less protected)
      • can receive ATC service if available
      • no specific requirement
    9. Special Use Airspace
      1. Prohibited area (P-xxx)
        • For reason of national security, the flight of aircraft is prohibited. (White House etc)
      2. Restricted area (R-xxx)
        • A flight is restricted and required to have an authorization.
        • It has invisible HAZARDs to aircraft. (artillery firing, aerial gunnery, guided missile, etc. )
        • You may fly through it ONLY If permission Is granted by the controlling agency.
      3. Warning area (W-xxx)
        • It contains hazards to nonparticipating aircraft over International or coastal waters,
        • You may fly trough it, but it is similar to Restricted area. NOT safe
      4. Military Operating Area (MOA)
        • You may fly trough it., but be careful.
      5. Alert area (A-xxx)
        • It has unusual type of aerial activity or high concentration of student pilot training.
        • You may fly through it, but be careful.
      6. You may fly those Special Use Airspace, but you should or must contact agency or get information
    10. Military training route
      • Low level (below 10000ft.MSL) high speed (excess 250 knots) military flight.
      • VR-xxx -VFR flight
      • IR-xxx - IFR flight
      • 4 digit - Below 1500ft.AGL
      • 3 digit - Above 1500ft.AGL
    11. Other Airspace
      • Airport Advisory Area =AAA (10 miles from Non-Tower airport with flight service station.)
      • TRSA Terminal Radar Service Area (not required, but strongly recommended to contact ATC)
      • Wild Life refuges (noise sensitive area)
    12. VFR weather minimum
      1. VFR in Controlled Airspace
      2. VFR in Uncontrolled Airspace
      3. VFR in Class A, B, C, D, E

I. FLYING AN AIRPLANE

  1. You have to do WALK AROUND INSPECTION before each flight.
    • Check Aircraft's condition (no damage, missing parts, nor blockages, etc)
    • Check Required Inspections
    • Check Required Documents and Certificate
  2. Taxi techniques
    • Position of Aileron and Elevator
    • Difference in Tricycle type and Tailwheel Type
  3. Wake Turbulence Avoidance
    1. Wingtip Vortex is created when lift is created.
      • Vortex created around wingtip.
    2. It is most dangerous when the airplane is HEAVY ,SLOW and CLEAN.
    3. It tend to sink below the flight path
      • Takeoff following other aircraft
      • Landing following other aircraft
      • Crossing flight path
    4. Jet Blast (especially from a large Jet Engine)
  4. Collision Avoidance from other aircraft
    1. Mid-Air Collision is mostly FATAL
    2. Use of Eyes for Avoiding Other Aircraft
      1. Day time: 10 degree sector mechanical scan
      2. Night time: Off center viewing
      3. Avoid white light for 30 minutes before a night flight
    3. Collusion course
      1. when it seems stationary
      2. near the level (height) of a horizon
      3. they are harder to see in collision course
    4. Clearing turn (make sure no planes in any blind spots)
      1. in a High Wing Airplane, before each turns
      2. before each maneuvers turn to Right and Left
      3. on the airway
      4. prior to maneuver,
    5. Use and Turn on
      1. Anti-collusion light any time.
      2. landing lights, at least near an airport
    6. Appearance in Hazy Day.
      1. Aircraft and terrain look further than actual.
      2. Closer than what you think.
    7. VFR, day, clear sky near an airport is the most dangerous
  5. Emergency
    1. Engine Failure
      1. Keep the best glide speed (before anything, altitude is only your friend)
      2. Look for the landing spot and turn to there.
        • do NOT attempt to turn around on takeoff
      3. THEN, Trouble shoot
      4. Stop the engine.
        • Fuel shut-off or selector valve = off, Mixture lean to idel cut-off, Ignition switch off,
      5. Transponder 7700
      6. Radio 121.5 (or on frequency your are on. if not, nearest airport, ATC or FSS frequency)
      7. Mayday mayday mayday,... (declare and state your problem, location, # of people etc)
    2. Radio failure
      • Transponder 7600
      • ATC light gun signal for Class-D Airports
    3. High jack (Transponder 7500)
  6. Radio phraseology (just for passing a written exam)
    1. Altitude: 10,500 feet= One zero thousand five hundred feet
    2. Call FSS: Oakland FSS = Oakland radio
    3. N-number: N123SF = November One Two Three Sierra Foxtrot
    4. Ground Control (ATC)
      1. Runway 13 = don't mean enter or cross the runway 13. Requires clear instruction.
      2. Crossing a runway = need a clearance or instruction from ATC
      3. You should contact ground control after landing WHEN ADVISED BY TOWER,
    5. Traffic advisory 'Traffic 2 o' clock." is based on your ground track, not heading.
  7. Emergency Locator Transmitter = ELT
    1. Emits signal when detect high impact, and rescue begins
    2. Frequency:
      • 121.5 (and 243.0) MHz for analog signal, and
      • 406 MHz for digital signal with more information included (and will replace analog ELT)
    3. The battery must be charged (or replaced)
      • each 1 cumulative hour
      • after 50% of their useful life is expired.
    4. ELT may tested only on the ground during the first 5 minutes after the hour.
      • for analog ELTs.
      • upto 3 sweeps.
      • Airborne Test are NOT authorized
      • for digital, follow manufacture's instructions
    5. Check ELT after each flight if it is not activated.
  8. VHF/DF=Direction finder
    • Most FSS and some Tower
    • DF helps the pilot to find the direction from the station.
    • Two-way radio communication equipment is required to receive the support.
  9. Time Zones
    • Convert to (or from) Zulu Time (UTC) from (or to) Local Time
    • Uses of Time Zone Chart
  10. Notice to Airman = NOTAM
    • To inform a time critical information which could affect any flight
    • temporary nature
    • not sufficiently known in advance to be published
    • types of NOTAM
      1. NOTAM-D
      2. FDC NOTAM
      3. Pointer NOTAM
      4. Special Use Airspace NOTAM
      5. Military NOTAM
    • NOTAM (L) does NOT exist
  11. Flight plan
    • For VFR, it is recommended
    • For IFR or DVFR, you have to
    • Let people know you are flying, if you don't return, they will look for you
      1. For a VFR flight, FILE your flight plan by a phone, internet, DUAT, radio, or in person to FSS before takeoff, 
      2. OPEN your flight plan on the radio after takeoff,
      3. May report progress (position report) or amend as needed
      4. CLOSE your flight plan by the radio or phone with FSS (or ground control).
      5. Don't forget to close or police, rescue and military will be looking for you.
    • When filing, foloow the format or use Form 7233-1
  12. Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD)
    1. A book contains airport, navaid, and other data
    2. issued every 56 day
    3. Check NOTAM before flight
  13. Advisory Circulars AC
    1. to provide aviation information and/or help to comply FARs, but not regulatory
    2. AC numbers are corresponds to FAR subchapter title: such as....
      • 60: Airman
      • 70 Airspace
      • 90 General Operation and ATC
    3. issued by FAA and printed by government printing office.
    4. Some are toll, some are free. (Now on the the FAA Web Site for free)
    5. Some AC's are changed to Handbook, such as Airplane Flying Handbook

J. Charts

  1. Sectional Charts
    • WAC and VFR Terminal Charts
  2. Effective Date
    • NOTAM
  3. Legend and data on the stub
  4. Scale
    • 1:500,000
    • Plotter and Distance
    • 1 cm (or inch) = ? KM = ? Mile
  5. Longitude and Latitude
    • Units (Degree, minute, second)
  6. Chart as a map
    • Elevation and Contour
    • Water, Land, Mountain, Landmark, Town, Highway, Railroad, etc
    • Obstructions with 2 heights
  7. Airport
    • read airport data and color
    • shapes
  8. Navigation Aid (NAVAID)
  9. Airspace (Review)
    1. Class B, C, D, E, G Airspace
      • Class E and SVFR
    2. Special Use Airspace (Review)
    3. Communication Box (Review)

K. NAVIGATION

    1. Dead Reckoning
      • by a Calculation (Ground Speed, Course, Wind Triangle, E-6B)
        • Course: The intended direction of flight in the horizontal plane measured in degrees from north.
        • Heading: The angle between north and longitudinal axis of the airplane measured in degrees
        • use of Plotter and find Course and Distance
        • use of E-6B to find Time, Distance, Speed
      1. Variation
        • Magnetic compass does not indicate north pole. It Indicates MAGNETIC NORTH.
        • The difference between true north pole and magnetic north measured in degree is VARIATION.
        • It varies from place to place.
          • 15°30' E
          • East is Least (+) West is Best (-)
        • True xxx = from North Pole, True North, (T)
        • Magnetic xxx =from Magnetic North (M)
        • True course & Variation = MAGNETIC COURSE
        • Magnetic course & Wind correction angle = MAGNETIC HEADING
      2. Compass Deviation
        1. It is produced by disturbance from magnetic fields produced by metal and electrical accessories inside.
        2. Magnetic heading + Deviation = COMPASS HEADING
      3. Predict Course and Time from POH Data and Winds Aloft Forecast, then Correct in the air
    2. VOR - VHF Omni Range
      1. VOR receiver indicates POSITION of you relative to the station.
        • It only knows which radial you are on.
      2. Choose desire VOR station by setting the frequency.
        • It can be identified with morse code
        • must confirm the morse code (could be wrong station or VOR may be down)
      3. Choose desired radial by setting OBS
        • The indicator show the relative location compare to selected radial.
        • Does not matter what heading, but only on which radial you are on.
      4. VOR Test facility VOT
        1. Set the OBS 180 = TO or 380 = FROM
        2. (Cessna 182 => One Eighty Two => One Eighty and TO)
      5. Maximum = acceptable deviation is 4
    3. GPS
      1. satellites on the space
      2. measures distance from satellites
        • find your position in a sphere from each satellite
        • more you receive, the sphere intercepts and your location is identified.
      3. GPS determines position, by receiving
        • 2 satellites = it knows positron in a circle
        • 3 satellites = it knows 2 possible position, but don't know which
        • 4 satellites = it knows location of the aircraft (GPS receiver)
        • 5 or more = accuracy goes up
      4. computers relate position and database to tell us position, direction, speed, altitude and your plans
    4. Non-Directional radio Beacon NDB
      1. NDB station can be found by an Automatic directional finder = ADF
      2. They were primary navigation system before VORs, but fading out.
      3. Relative Bearing (RB): Degrees between nose and station. (Shown on an ADF)
      4. Magnetic Bearing to the station (MB): The heading-to fly directly to the station.
        • MB (TO) = RB + MH
        • MB (FROM) = MB(TO) +/- 180

L. WEATHER THEORY

      • Cause of weather
        • Every physical process of weather is caused by UNEQUAL HEAT EXCHANGE.
        • Unequal heat exchange = Convection = Pressure Difference
          • air to flow, wind to blow
          • moisture to added and moves to form a cloud and fogs
          • to create rain or ice in the air
          • thunderstorms
        • Unequal heat exchange causes variation in altimeter setting
    1. CORIOLIS FORCE
      • deflects the wind (flow of fluid) to the right in the northern hemisphere.
      • makes wind to blow parallel, instead of perpendicular, to isobar
      • Less Coriolis force bear surface due to friction with ground
    2. Humidity
      • It determines general weather.
      • Moisture is added to air.
      • Relative humidity
        • Amount of Moisture compare to Maximum Moisture that air can hold
        • Amount of moisture can be held is affected by temperature.
      • Dewpoint (temp that air became 100% saturated. visible moisture)
    3. CLOUD
      1. Families of cloud
        • Low cloud Surface to 6,500 ft.
        • Middle cloud 6,500ft. - 20,000ft. (Alto-)
        • High cloud above 20,000ft. (Cirro-)
        • Extensive vertical development cloud
      2. Rain Cloud (nimbo-)
      3. Towering cumulus cloud
        • Cumulonimbus cloud
      4. Form of cloud
        • Straus: Stable Airmass, Less wind ,fog, continuous precipitation
        • Cumulus: Un-Stable Airmass, Gust, turbulence, showery precipitation
      5. Lenticular Cloud
    4. Thunderstorm
      1. Hazards
        • Turbulence: Substantial or Fatal structure damage, loss of control.
        • Lighting: Temporally loss of vision, electric failure,
        • Hail: Structure damage,
      2. Lifecycle
        1. cumulus stage: Up draft
        2. Mature stage: Most dangerous
          • Rain begins at Surface
          • Lighting
          • Severe and destructive Up and down draft
        3. Dissipating stage: Down draft, Weakening, but it energy may be transferring to next thunderstorm
      3. Squall line = Line of thunderstorm
      4. Embedded thunderstorm = hidden
    1. Wind shear (TURBULENCE)
      • It is sudden change in wind velocity or direction
        • horizontally or vertically.
      1. Where does it occur?
        1. Near thunderstorm,
        2. close to ground with strong wind.
        3. Strong Temperature Inversion
      2. Loss of control
      3. Loss of lift (because of airspeed change) = stall or high descent rate = may crash into ground
      4. Loss of altitude
    2. Temperature Inversion
      • Temperature increases as altitude increase,
      • Very Stable Airmass, such as Clear still night
      • Warm airmass is moving over cold airmass.
    3. Mountain wave
      • Near mountain top, wind blowing across a ridge
      • Lenticular Cloud
      • Very strong wind and turbulence, even it seems stationary or invisible.
    4. STABILITY of AIRMASS
        Stable Airmass

      Unstable Airmass

      Lapse Rate Low High
      Air Smooth Turbulent
      Cloud Stratiform Cumuliform
      Precipitation Continuous Showery
      Visibility Low, Fog, Haze Good clear (except rain)
    5. Icing
      1. Structural Icing
        • Raining below freezing temperature
        • Supercooled Water (Liquid State even below freezing)
        • Type of Icing
          1. Clear
            • Hard and Clear, Heavy,
            • often Cumulus Type Cloud
            • large water droplets, slow freezing
            • Adheres and hard to remove
            • changes shape of airfoil
          2. Rime
            • Small water droplets with air trapped
            • somewhat rough-looking appearance and a milky-white color.
            • often stratus type cloud
          3. Mixed (Mixture of Clear and Rime)
        • Supercooled Water will freeze at impact
      2. Carb Icing is likely to occur when
        • temperature 20 to 70
        • humidity more than 50%, more likely to happen above 80%
      3. review several accident reports if time is available
    6. Frost on wing
      1. It causes early separation of air.
      2. Difficult or Impossible to take off.
    7. Front
      1. Cold front
        • Colder Air overtakes Warmer Air
        • Steep slope and Narrower
        • Cumulus Type Clouds, and chance of Thunderstorm with faster moving cold front
      2. Warm front
        • Warmer air move over cold airmass
        • Shallow Slope
        • Stratus Type Cloud for wide area
        • Occasional Cumulonimbus Clouds = Embedded thunderstorm
        • Higher chances of Freezing Rain
      3. Stationary front
        • no or very few move
        • warm and cold air flows parallel but opposite direction
        • same pressure
        • weather lasts extended time
      4. Occluded front
        • Cold front passes warm front
        • complex
        • Widespread, poor visibility, possible icing
      5. Cold Air = More Dense = Moves Faster
    8. Fog
      1. Condition
        • High Humidity
        • Few temperature dewpoint spread
        • needs condensation nuclei (particles so that moisture can condense around it)
      2. Radiation fog
        • Clear, calm night
        • Land area
      3. Advection fog
        • Warm, Moist Air flows over Cold Land (Area)
        • large temperature difference
        • Shore line to cold Land area
      4. Upslope fog
        • Moist Air flow up a slope, and cooled
      5. Steam fog
        • cold air moves over water
        • turbulence
      6. Rain-Induced Fog
      7. Fog and Mist
        • Fog = Visibility Less than 5/8 Statute Mile
        • Mist = BR = Fog reduces visibility to between 5/8 SM to 6 SM.  
      8. Haze, Smoke, Smog
        1. Haze
          • fine dust or salt in the air
          • restricted visibility
          • stable air
        2. Smoke
          • industrial area, or fire
        3. Smog
          • Mixture of smoke and fog

M. WEATHER DATA

    1. Weather Briefing
      1. Getting Weather Data by calling a Flight service station FSS
        1. Standard Briefing (all information, almost)
        2. Abbreviate Briefing (to update, supplement, and limited)
        3. Outlook briefing (for a flight 6 or more hours later)
      2. when requesting by a phone, tell
        1. yourself as a pilot (N-Number or Your name if no N-Number yet)
        2. type of aircraft
        3. type of flight (VFR or IFR)
        4. departing airport
        5. intended route (and altitude)
        6. destination
        7. time of proposed departure and en route
      3. In flight briefing (radio contact to FSS in the air)
    2. Flight Watch = En route Flight Advisory Service = EFAS
      1. Design to exchange weather data
      2. Actual condition, turbulence and thunderstorm information of your en route.
      3. central collection and distribution point for pilot reported information
        • many are based on Pilots Reports
      4. Not for briefing nor flight plan
      5. 122.00 MHz below FL180
        • anywhere in contiguous US, you can contact EFAS above 5,000 ft AGL
      6. Above FL 180, check A/FD
      7. generally 6 am to 10 pm local time
      8. a specialist covers several outlets, so you need to tell them where you are.
    3. to call FSS in the air
      • "xxx Radio, Cessna 12345...."
      • "yyy Flight Watch, Cessna 12345, Tomato VOR..." for EFAS, need to tell location
    4. Inflight Aviation Weather Advisory
      1. SIGMET : Weather hazard for ALL aircraft (non-convective)
        • Severe Icing
        • Severe or Extreme Turblence or Clear Air Turbulence (CAT)
        • SIGMET does NOT include thunderstorm
        • Sandstorms or Dust Storm lowering visibility below 3 miles
        • Volcanic Ash
      2. CONVECTIVE SIGMET: Warning for all aircraft for Convective activity (Thunderstorm)
        • Severe Thunderstorm due to
          • 50 kts or more surface wind
          • Hail larger than 3/4 inches
          • Tornadoes
        • Embedded Thunderstorm
        • Line of Thunderstorm
        • Thunderstorm produces heavy precipitation more than 40% of area of least 3,000 sq. miles
        • any convective situation that the forecaster feels is hazardous to all categories of aircraft.
      3. AIRMET : advisories of significant weather phenomena but lower than SIGMETs.
        • for pilots in the preflight or en route to enhance safety.
        • There are three AIRMETs
          • AIRMET Sierra : IFR conditions and/or extensive mountain obscurations.
          • AIRMET Tango : moderate turbulence, sustained surface winds of 30 knots or greater, and/or nonconvective low-level wind shear.
          • AIRMET Zulu : moderate icing and provides freezing level heights.
        • G-AIRMET (Graphical AIRMET) is available on AWC site for better understanding.
      4. Hawaii and Alaska Convective SIGMENT is included in SIGMET
    5. HIWAS 
      • transmit to tell us that hazard information is available
      • check appropriate weather products or contact a flight watch or FSS
      • H in communication box
    6. Common Terms (General)
      1. Sky condition
        1. Clear or SKY Clear (CLR or SKC)
          • CLR nothing below 12,000 feet AGL at an automated station
          • SKC no layers are reported at a manual station.
        2. Few (FEW) 1/8 to 2/8 (Quarter) (includes less than 1/8)
        3. Scattered (SCT) 3/8 - 4/8 (Half)
        4. Broken (BKN) 5/8 -7/8 (some holes, or part of)
        5. Overcast (OVC) 8/8
        6. Obscured (VV): Vertical Visibility (When it is Low horizontal visibility) 8/8
      2. Ceiling: Height of the base of cloud from BKN to OVC, but not thin.
      3. Categorical Outlook
        1. (if used) Low IFR (LIFR)
          • Ceiling to 500 feet and/or Visibility less than 1 mile
        2. IFR
          • Ceiling 1,000 feet and/or Visibility less than 3 miles
        3. Marginal VFR (MVFR)
          • Ceiling to 1,000 to 3,000 feet and/or Visibility 3 to 5 miles
          • possible to fly VFR, but, but, but
        4. VFR
          • Ceiling 5,000 feet or more and Visibility 5 miles or more
        • WIND....More than 25 knots.
      4. Intensity
        1. Light....LGT
        2. Moderate.....MDT
        3. Severe.....SVR
        4. Extreme... EXTRM
      • Cloud reports and Height are reported only visible from a point. It may be clear or clogged above
    7. METAR
      • reported weather (now or past, but never future)
      • automated or manually observed
      1. METAR
      2. Station Identifier (K+3 letters in mainland, P+3 in Northern Pacific Region, R+3 Japan)
      3. Date and Time
      4. Report Modifier (as Required) AUTO or SPECI
      5. Wind
        1. Gust (G) 10 kts or more in less than 10 min
        2. VRB: variable below 6 kts
        3. xxxVxxx: more than 6 kts with direction
        4. Calm Wind: 00000KT
      6. Visibility
        1. in SM (Statute Miles)
        2. in KM (Kilometers in many countries)
        3. Runway Visual Range (RVR in feet with Runway Number) is added
          (if equiped and Visibility less than 1 mile or RVR 6,000 or less for an Instrument Runway)
      7. Present Weather
        1. Intensity: - light, + heavy, none for Moderate
        2. Descriptor: SH (Shower), TS (Thunderstorm), FZ (Freezing), etc
        3. Precipitation: RA (Rain), DZ (Drizzle), SN (Snow), etc
        4. Obscuration (what lowers visibility): BR (Mist), FG, Smoke (FU), Haze (HZ)
        5. other:
      8. Sky Condition
        • Ceiling
        • Indifinite Ceiling
      9. Temperature and Dewpoint
      10. Altimeter (A)
      11. Remarks (RMK)
    8. Pilot weather report PIREP (/UA, route) or Urgent Report (/UUA)
      1. /OV: Position
      2. /TM: Time
      3. /FL: Flight level or altitude
      4. /TP: Type of aircraft
      5. /SK: Sky condition (heights are in MSL)
      6. /WX: Visibility and weather
      7. /TA: Temperature (C)
      8. /WV: Wind
      9. /TB: Turbulence
      10. /IC: Icing
      11. /RM: Remarks
    9. Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
      1. provide forecast within 5 miles from the airport.
      2. Format:
        1. Type: Route or Amended (TAF or TAF AMD)
        2. Station identifier: ICAO, K + 3 letters
        3. Prepared Time: Date and Time
        4. Valid Time of the forecast
        5. Wind
        6. Visibility
        7. Significant Weather
        8. Sky Condition and Vertical Obscuration
        9. Low-Level Wind Shear (non convective)
        10. CHANGE GROUP
          • FMxxxx: Significate Change will happens in a hour or less
          • TEMPO xxxx: temp fluctuations,
            • happens 50% or more
            • last less than 1 hour
          • PROB30: 30% of chance
        11. " to the end of Forecast"
      3. Terms and Codes are similar to METAR
    10. Aviation Area Forecast (FA)
      1. it is the forecast for wide area (each covers about 1/8 of the U.S.A.).
        • way more than 3,000 square miles (only 55 miles x 55 miles)
          • this 3,000 is for other purpose (e.g. AIRMET)
        • covers several states
      2. can be used if TAF is not available at or near your destination.
      3. forecasts of VMC condition, clouds and general weather condition
      4. for complete information, you needs to check "Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories"
      5. issued 3 times are day
        • each covers 12 hours
        • plus 6 hours of Categorical Outlook
      6. Sections of FA
        1. Header (Communication and Product Header)
          1. Regions and insurance time
          2. statements of what is contained,
          3. synopsis valid time,
          4. forecast time for VMC
          5. States and areas contained in the FA
        2. Precautionary Statement
          1. alert pilots what is NOT contained in this products, such as
            1. IFR Condition
            2. Thunderstorms, severe turbulence, icing, low-level wind shear
          2. also, tells heights are MSL unless they are preceded by AGL or CIG
        3. Synopsis
          • summary of weather in FA: location and movement of front, pressure system, and other
        4. VFR cloud and Weather (CLDS/WX)
          1. MVFR to VFR condition
          2. Widespread wind of 20 kts or more
          3. followed by categorical outlook
        5. Remember that IFR Condition is not in a FA (need to check AIRMET)
      7. Hazardous Weather which meets AIRMET or SIGMET criteria is NOT covered in FA
    11. Wind and Temperature Aloft Forecast
      1. Wind and Temperature forecast for above ground level
        1. 6-digit:
          1. Wind direction in 10 (add 0)
          2. Wind speed
          3. Temperatures in C (no + or - above FL240)
        2. 4-digit (to close to ground, less than 2,500 AGL, no temperature is forecasted)
        3. Wind more than 100 kts, 5 is added on the first digit and means wind is more than 100 kts
        4. less than 5 knots, 9900
      2. Winds are forecasted in TRUE and KTONS
    12. Weather depletion chart (reported, past)
      1. METAR or other reported information is mapped.
      2. sky coverage at stations are shown in little circles
      3. low visibility and significant weather are indicated
      4. MVFR and IFR areas are easily shown
        1. areas are covered by counter lines,
        2. tells pilot areas of MVFR and IFR quickly
      5. Front System are shown
    13. Radar Summary Chart (reported, past)
      1. Graphic Display of radar reports
      2. type, intensity, movement of precipitation, cells and squall lines
      3. This is for PRE-FLIGHT planning only and must cross-checked with other data.
      4. Severe Weather (enclosed by a heavy dashed line)
      5. intensity trend is NOT shown any more
    14. Significant weather prognostic chart (Forecast)
      1. 4 Panel Format (Chart)
        1. UPPER panels are for surface to FL240 (Low Level Chart)
          1. IFR and MVFR Condition
          2. Turbulence
          3. Freezing levels
        2. BOTTOM panels (Surface)
          1. High andLow Pressure System, and Fronts
          2. Type, Intensity and Coverage of Precipitation
        3. LEFT are forecast of 12 hr and RIGHT are 24 hrs after insurance.
      2. There are Short-Range Surface, Low-, Mid-, High-Level Charts are available.
        1. Low Level : upto FL 240 or 400 millibars
        2. Mid-Level : from 10,000 ft MSL to FL 450
        3. High-Level : FL 250 to FL 630
      3. Those charts are avaialbe at AWC (ADDS) Web Site in a separate panel.
    15. other products
      1. Convective Outlook (AC)
      2. Severe Weather Watch Bulletins (WW)
      3. Observed Winds Aloft Charts
      4. Constant Pressure Chart
      5. TWEB (Alaska Only)

N. FLIGHT PHYSIOLOGY

    1. Hypoxia
      1. It is a state of oxygen deficiency in the blood stream
      2. Symptom: Headache., Dizziness, Restless, Sleepiness Euphoria (a happy feeling), Lowers Vision
      3. Treatment: Use Aviation Oxygen and Descend ASAP
    2. Hyperventilation
      1. Chemical imbalance of blood.
        1. Excessive amount of air is breathed out too much Carbon Dioxide from blood, and
        2. Too much oxygen is in the body.
      2. caused by excessive breathing
        • too much emotional stress, fear.
      3. Symptoms: Dizziness, hot or cold sensations, lips or nail become blue. (and Panic)
      4. Treatment:
        1. Slow the breathing rate.
        2. Talk or sing aloud.
      5. always relax
    3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
      1. CO is colorless, odorless and tasteless gas and
      2. very little CO significantly reduce one's ability to do anything and may cause death.
      3. Blocks Hemoglobin to exchanges of Oxygen and CO2
      4. There is a chance that the carbon monoxide comes into the cabin from hot air of a leaking heater,
        1. CO is in exhaust gas from engine
        2. if you smell exhaust gas, shut down the heater and land ASPS
        3. Never take a chances - colorless and odorless - you don't know
      5. Symptoms: Headache, nausea, dizziness ,loss of muscle power
             usually, you lose muscle power or consciousness before taking any action
      6. Treatment: Stop the heater, open the window, and breath fresh air, decent and land.
    4. Spatial Disorientation (Vertigo)
      1. It is the state of temporary confusion of brain by misleading information is sent.
      2. You don't know airplanes attitude and lose control then crush.
      3. easily happens in cloud or clear night.
      4. It happens to anyone in nature, training can only help.
      5. If you suspect Spatial Disorientation, trust instrument, but never yourself.
      6. continuously scan all instruments but never stare only one instrument. (no more than 1 second each)
    5. Night Flying
      1. Off center viewing
      2. your eye needs at least 30 minutes to adjust dark
      3. Consider using Supplemental Aviation Oxygen above 5,000 feet
    6. Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM)
      1. Systematic Approach to the metal process for better decision Makings
        • should be used by pilots to consistently make the best course of action
        • Pilots and Human Errors is the biggest factor on accidents
      2. Risk Management
        1. How do you cope risk?
        2. decision making process to cope with risks, relies on
          1. situational awareness
          2. problem recognition
          3. good judgment
        3. P-P-P (other way to think)
          1. PERCEIVE hazards
          2. PROCESS to evaluate level of risk
          3. PERFORM risk management
        4. 4 risk element (PAVE)
          1. Pilots, Aircraft, enViroment, External pressure
        5. There are all way some risks, but which and when take it or refuse it?
      3. Operational Pittholes
        1. dangerous tendency or behavior
          1. Peer Pressure
          2. Mind Set
          3. Scud Running
          4. VFR to IMC
          5. Neglect of checklist
        2. there are lot more of those
      4. Five HAZARDOUS ATTITUDE
        1. Antiauthority, Impulsivity, Invulnerability, Macho, Resignation
        2. recognize hazardous attitude or thought
        3. label it and correct by ANTIDOTE
      5. These are only few of ADMs, search and study for a safe flight
O. Federal Aviation Regulations FAR
    1. Part 1 Definition and abbreviations
      1. Category (for aircraft or pilots)
      2. Class (for aircraft or pilots)
      3. Night Time
      4. ATC Clearance
      5. Abbreviations
    2. Part 21
      1. Airworthiness Certificate
    3. Part 39
      1. Airworthiness Directive
    4. Part 43
      1. Preventive Maintenance
      2. Maintenance Record
    5. Part 61: Certification for Pilots.
      1. Requirements for Pilot Certificates and Ratings
      2. Duration of Pilot Certificate
      3. Alcohol and Drug Offenses
      4. Medical Certificate
      5. Type Rating Requirements, Additional Training, and Authorization Requiments
      6. Flight Review
      7. Recent Flight Experience
      8. Change of Address
      9. Glider Towing
      10. Private Pilot Privilege and Limitations
    6. Part 91: General Operating and Flight Rules
      1. Responsibility and Authority of a PIC
      2. Airworthiness
      3. Operating Limitations (manual, marking, and placard)
      4. Dropping Objects
      5. Alcohol and Drugs
      6. Preflight Action
      7. Flight Crew at Station
      8. Use of Safety Belts
      9. Formation Flight
      10. Right-of-Way Rules
      11. Aircraft Speed Limit
      12. Minimum Safe Altitude
      13. Altimeter Settings
      14. ATC Clearance and Instructions
      15. Class C Airspace
      16. Class B Airspace
      17. Restricted and Prohibited Areas
      18. Class A Airspace
      19. Fuel Requirements
      20. Basic VFR Weather Minimum
      21. Special VFR Weather Minimum
      22. VFR cruising altitude
      23. Aircraft's required documents
      24. ELT
      25. Aircraft Light
      26. Supplemental Oxygen
      27. ATC Transponder and Mode-C
      28. Aerobatic
      29. Parachute
      30. Flight with Special Airworthiness Certificate for Restricted and Experimental
      31. Maintenance Requirement and Recording
      32. After Maintenance
      33. Inspection, annual and 100 hour
      34. ATC Transponder Inspection
      35. Passenger Briefing
    7. NTSB part 830 Accident Reporting
        • This is not part of FAR, but still Federal Regulation (CFR)
      1. Immediate Notification
      2. Preservation
      3. Filing Reports to NTSB (When?)


注意:

元々のデータが古いので、このリストが完璧とは言えませんが、大半のトピックが含まれていると思います。 20年前だとこのリストでWritten Examが受けられるぐらいには成っていたと思うのですが。 まあ、20年ぶりに見ると間違いもチラホラと有ったので確実とは言えません。 実際に試験を受ける人は必ず現役でも有る、貴方の飛行教官から適切な教習を受けてください。 ここではかなりの事は学べますが、完璧でもは有りませんので、ご注意を。 また、このリストにはフライトは含まれませんし、ATCも有りません、そしてFSSに連絡するとかDUATを使うなど実用的な事は含まれて居ませんので注意して下さい。

著作権は放棄しませんが、教官さんや学校が生徒さんの為に使うのも自由です。 その時は必ず私に連絡の上、生徒さんには「CFI Japan」からとお伝えください。 学校内と限定するなら複製もOKですが、何処かに「CFI Japanより」と記入してください。そして、抜けている所や間違いを修正の上、貴方がや学校が責任を持ってお使い下さい。

しかし、一部でも不特定多数の人に配布したりする事は認めません。 無断で一部でもインターネット、掲示板、ブログ、各種ソーシャルメディア等での使用も禁止します。悪用される事については、もう徹底的に対応しますのでご注意ください。

 

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