Private Pilot Ground School モドキ
E. FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
- Pitot static system
- measures Atmosphere
- compare with international standard atmosphere
- 29.92 in Hg and 15 degree in C (59 in F)
- -1 in Hg and -2 degrees per 1,000 feet
- Use Pitot Tube facing stragiht and Static Port loacated on side
- If a pitot tube clogged - Airspeed Indicator affected
- If a static port clogged - All Instruments affected
- Airspeed Indicator
- measures (impact pressure - static pressure) then convert to airspeed
- Arc on Airspeed Indicator
- White arc = Flap operating range
- Green arc = Normal operating range
- Yellow arc = Caution range
- Red line = Never exceed speed
- V-speed: Airspeed limitation, important airspeed of operation
- Vso = Stalling speed at landing configuration.
- Vs1 = Stalling speed at specific configuration.
- Vfe = Maximum flap extended speed
- Vno = Maximum structural cruising speed
- Vne = Never exceed speed
- Following V-speeds are not shown on the airspeed Indicator, but they are very Important.
- Va = Maneuvering speed
- Vlo = Maximum landing gear operation speed
- Vx = Best angle of climb
- Vy = Best rate of climb
- gives Indicated Airspeed (not true, but all aircraft knows indicated)
- measures static pressure, then coverts to altitude
- Altimeter setting
- Prior for a takeoff
- Set the current altimeter setting, or
- Set the altimeter so that indicates the elevation of the airport
- Above 18000ft
- Set the altimeter 29.92, then it will be called all flight level (FL).
- Altimeter Indication varies 1000 ft/1 in Hg.
- Altimeter error
- Fly from high pressure area to low pressure area: Altimeter Indicates higher than true.
- Fly from low pressure area to high pressure area: Altimeter Indicates lower than true.
- Fly from hot area to cold area: Altimeter Indicates higher than true.
- Fly from cold area to hot area: Altimeter Indicates lower than true.
- "Low and cold, Watch out below!"
- True altitude & absolute altitude
- True altitude: The vertical distance of the aircraft above sea level.
- Absolute altitude: The vertical distance of the aircraft above the surface.
- Pressure Altitude: when set to 29.92 to find True Altitude and Density Altitude
- Vertical Speed Indicator
- measure difference in static pressure in time
- indicates rate of change in altitude
- slight delay
- Gyroscopic Instruments
Attitude Indicator (engine driven)
- Uses gyroscopic effect of a ROTATING object.
Heading Indicator (engine driven)
- Rigidity in Space (the axis is vertical)
- Set the miniature airplane to the horizon bar before each flight.
- artificial horizon stays and miniature airplane moves around.
Turn coordinator (electric driven)
- Rigidity in Space (the axis is horizontal)
- Set it on known heading before and during each flight.
some instrument on some aircraft uses different source for power
- It Indicates yaw and roll. It shows rate of turn (380 degrees/2min = standard rate turn).
- It is accurate only in straight-and-level unaccelerated flight. (and no disturbance)
- It is caused by the magnetic field within the aircraft disturbing the line of magnetic force.
Dip (magnetic dip)
- Compass doesn't indicates true north, but magnetic north.
Accelerating error (ANDS)
- Turn from North = a compass indicates Opposite
- Turning through north indicated the biggest delay
- Turn from South = a compass indicates Faster
- Turning through South indicates ahead in the most amount.
- No turning error at East or West Heading
- on East or West Heading
- Acceleration = Compass Indicates North
- Deceleration = Compass Indicates Sooth
- No error on North/South