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Private Pilot Ground School モドキ

E. FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS

    1. Pitot static system
        1. measures Atmosphere
        2. compare with international standard atmosphere
          • 29.92 in Hg and 15 degree in C (59 in F)
          • -1 in Hg and -2 degrees per 1,000 feet
        3. Use Pitot Tube facing stragiht and Static Port loacated on side
        4. If a pitot tube clogged - Airspeed Indicator affected
        5. If a static port clogged - All Instruments affected
      1. Airspeed Indicator
        1. measures (impact pressure - static pressure) then convert to airspeed
        2. Arc on Airspeed Indicator
          • White arc = Flap operating range
          • Green arc = Normal operating range
          • Yellow arc = Caution range
          • Red line = Never exceed speed
        3. V-speed: Airspeed limitation, important airspeed of operation
          • Vso = Stalling speed at landing configuration.
          • Vs1 = Stalling speed at specific configuration.
          • Vfe = Maximum flap extended speed
          • Vno = Maximum structural cruising speed
          • Vne = Never exceed speed
        4. Following V-speeds are not shown on the airspeed Indicator, but they are very Important.
          • Va = Maneuvering speed
          • Vlo = Maximum landing gear operation speed
          • Vx = Best angle of climb
          • Vy = Best rate of climb
        5. gives Indicated Airspeed (not true, but all aircraft knows indicated)
      2. Altimeter
        1. measures static pressure, then coverts to altitude
        2. Altimeter setting
          • Prior for a takeoff
            • Set the current altimeter setting, or
            • Set the altimeter so that indicates the elevation of the airport
          • Above 18000ft
            • Set the altimeter 29.92, then it will be called all flight level (FL).
          • Altimeter Indication varies 1000 ft/1 in Hg.
        3. Altimeter error
          1. Pressure
            • Fly from high pressure area to low pressure area: Altimeter Indicates higher than true.
            • Fly from low pressure area to high pressure area: Altimeter Indicates lower than true.
          2. Temperature
            • Fly from hot area to cold area: Altimeter Indicates higher than true.
            • Fly from cold area to hot area: Altimeter Indicates lower than true.
          3. "Low and cold, Watch out below!"
        4. True altitude & absolute altitude
          • True altitude: The vertical distance of the aircraft above sea level.
          • Absolute altitude: The vertical distance of the aircraft above the surface.
        5. Pressure Altitude: when set to 29.92 to find True Altitude and Density Altitude
      3. Vertical Speed Indicator
        • measure difference in static pressure in time
        • indicates rate of change in altitude
        • slight delay
    2. Gyroscopic Instruments
        • Uses gyroscopic effect of a ROTATING object.
      1. Attitude Indicator (engine driven)
        1. Rigidity in Space (the axis is vertical)
        2. Set the miniature airplane to the horizon bar before each flight.
        3. artificial horizon stays and miniature airplane moves around.
      2. Heading Indicator (engine driven)
        1. Rigidity in Space (the axis is horizontal)
        2. Set it on known heading before and during each flight.
      3. Turn coordinator (electric driven) Precession
        • It Indicates yaw and roll. It shows rate of turn (380 degrees/2min = standard rate turn).
      4. some instrument on some aircraft uses different source for power
    3. Magnetic compass
      1. It is accurate only in straight-and-level unaccelerated flight. (and no disturbance)
      2. Deviation
        • It is caused by the magnetic field within the aircraft disturbing the line of magnetic force.
      3. Variation
        • Compass doesn't indicates true north, but magnetic north.
      4. Dip (magnetic dip)
      5. Turning error
        1. Turn from North = a compass indicates Opposite
          • Turning through north indicated the biggest delay
        2. Turn from South = a compass indicates Faster
          • Turning through South indicates ahead in the most amount.
        3. No turning error at East or West Heading
      6. Accelerating error (ANDS)
        1. on East or West Heading
          • Acceleration = Compass Indicates North
          • Deceleration = Compass Indicates Sooth
        2. No error on North/South
 
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