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Private Pilot Ground School モドキ


    1. Weather Briefing
      1. Getting Weather Data by calling a Flight service station FSS
        1. Standard Briefing (all information, almost)
        2. Abbreviate Briefing (to update, supplement, and limited)
        3. Outlook briefing (for a flight 6 or more hours later)
      2. when requesting by a phone, tell
        1. yourself as a pilot (N-Number or Your name if no N-Number yet)
        2. type of aircraft
        3. type of flight (VFR or IFR)
        4. departing airport
        5. intended route (and altitude)
        6. destination
        7. time of proposed departure and en route
      3. In flight briefing (radio contact to FSS in the air)
    2. Flight Watch = En route Flight Advisory Service = EFAS
      1. Design to exchange weather data
      2. Actual condition, turbulence and thunderstorm information of your en route.
      3. central collection and distribution point for pilot reported information
        • many are based on Pilots Reports
      4. Not for briefing nor flight plan
      5. 122.00 MHz below FL180
        • anywhere in contiguous US, you can contact EFAS above 5,000 ft AGL
      6. Above FL 180, check A/FD
      7. generally 6 am to 10 pm local time
      8. a specialist covers several outlets, so you need to tell them where you are.
    3. to call FSS in the air
      • "xxx Radio, Cessna 12345...."
      • "yyy Flight Watch, Cessna 12345, Tomato VOR..." for EFAS, need to tell location
    4. Inflight Aviation Weather Advisory
      1. SIGMET : Weather hazard for ALL aircraft (non-convective)
        • Severe Icing
        • Severe or Extreme Turblence or Clear Air Turbulence (CAT)
        • SIGMET does NOT include thunderstorm
        • Sandstorms or Dust Storm lowering visibility below 3 miles
        • Volcanic Ash
      2. CONVECTIVE SIGMET: Warning for all aircraft for Convective activity (Thunderstorm)
        • Severe Thunderstorm due to
          • 50 kts or more surface wind
          • Hail larger than 3/4 inches
          • Tornadoes
        • Embedded Thunderstorm
        • Line of Thunderstorm
        • Thunderstorm produces heavy precipitation more than 40% of area of least 3,000 sq. miles
        • any convective situation that the forecaster feels is hazardous to all categories of aircraft.
      3. AIRMET : advisories of significant weather phenomena but lower than SIGMETs.
        • for pilots in the preflight or en route to enhance safety.
        • There are three AIRMETs
          • AIRMET Sierra : IFR conditions and/or extensive mountain obscurations.
          • AIRMET Tango : moderate turbulence, sustained surface winds of 30 knots or greater, and/or nonconvective low-level wind shear.
          • AIRMET Zulu : moderate icing and provides freezing level heights.
        • G-AIRMET (Graphical AIRMET) is available on AWC site for better understanding.
      4. Hawaii and Alaska Convective SIGMENT is included in SIGMET
    5. HIWAS 
      • transmit to tell us that hazard information is available
      • check appropriate weather products or contact a flight watch or FSS
      • H in communication box
    6. Common Terms (General)
      1. Sky condition
        1. Clear or SKY Clear (CLR or SKC)
          • CLR nothing below 12,000 feet AGL at an automated station
          • SKC no layers are reported at a manual station.
        2. Few (FEW) 1/8 to 2/8 (Quarter) (includes less than 1/8)
        3. Scattered (SCT) 3/8 - 4/8 (Half)
        4. Broken (BKN) 5/8 -7/8 (some holes, or part of)
        5. Overcast (OVC) 8/8
        6. Obscured (VV): Vertical Visibility (When it is Low horizontal visibility) 8/8
      2. Ceiling: Height of the base of cloud from BKN to OVC, but not thin.
      3. Categorical Outlook
        1. (if used) Low IFR (LIFR)
          • Ceiling to 500 feet and/or Visibility less than 1 mile
        2. IFR
          • Ceiling 1,000 feet and/or Visibility less than 3 miles
        3. Marginal VFR (MVFR)
          • Ceiling to 1,000 to 3,000 feet and/or Visibility 3 to 5 miles
          • possible to fly VFR, but, but, but
        4. VFR
          • Ceiling 5,000 feet or more and Visibility 5 miles or more
        • WIND....More than 25 knots.
      4. Intensity
        1. Light....LGT
        2. Moderate.....MDT
        3. Severe.....SVR
        4. Extreme... EXTRM
      • Cloud reports and Height are reported only visible from a point. It may be clear or clogged above
    7. METAR
      • reported weather (now or past, but never future)
      • automated or manually observed
      1. METAR
      2. Station Identifier (K+3 letters in mainland, P+3 in Northern Pacific Region, R+3 Japan)
      3. Date and Time
      4. Report Modifier (as Required) AUTO or SPECI
      5. Wind
        1. Gust (G) 10 kts or more in less than 10 min
        2. VRB: variable below 6 kts
        3. xxxVxxx: more than 6 kts with direction
        4. Calm Wind: 00000KT
      6. Visibility
        1. in SM (Statute Miles)
        2. in KM (Kilometers in many countries)
        3. Runway Visual Range (RVR in feet with Runway Number) is added
          (if equiped and Visibility less than 1 mile or RVR 6,000 or less for an Instrument Runway)
      7. Present Weather
        1. Intensity: - light, + heavy, none for Moderate
        2. Descriptor: SH (Shower), TS (Thunderstorm), FZ (Freezing), etc
        3. Precipitation: RA (Rain), DZ (Drizzle), SN (Snow), etc
        4. Obscuration (what lowers visibility): BR (Mist), FG, Smoke (FU), Haze (HZ)
        5. other:
      8. Sky Condition
        • Ceiling
        • Indifinite Ceiling
      9. Temperature and Dewpoint
      10. Altimeter (A)
      11. Remarks (RMK)
    1. Pilot weather report PIREP (/UA, route) or Urgent Report (/UUA)
      1. /OV: Position
      2. /TM: Time
      3. /FL: Flight level or altitude
      4. /TP: Type of aircraft
      5. /SK: Sky condition (heights are in MSL)
      6. /WX: Visibility and weather
      7. /TA: Temperature (C)
      8. /WV: Wind
      9. /TB: Turbulence
      10. /IC: Icing
      11. /RM: Remarks
    2. Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
      1. provide forecast within 5 miles from the airport.
      2. Format:
        1. Type: Route or Amended (TAF or TAF AMD)
        2. Station identifier: ICAO, K + 3 letters
        3. Prepared Time: Date and Time
        4. Valid Time of the forecast
        5. Wind
        6. Visibility
        7. Significant Weather
        8. Sky Condition and Vertical Obscuration
        9. Low-Level Wind Shear (non convective)
        10. CHANGE GROUP
          • FMxxxx: Significate Change will happens in a hour or less
          • TEMPO xxxx: temp fluctuations,
            • happens 50% or more
            • last less than 1 hour
          • PROB30: 30% of chance
        11. " to the end of Forecast"
      3. Terms and Codes are similar to METAR
    3. Aviation Area Forecast (FA)
      1. it is the forecast for wide area (each covers about 1/8 of the U.S.A.).
        • way more than 3,000 square miles (only 55 miles x 55 miles)
          • this 3,000 is for other purpose (e.g. AIRMET)
        • covers several states
      2. can be used if TAF is not available at or near your destination.
      3. forecasts of VMC condition, clouds and general weather condition
      4. for complete information, you needs to check "Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories"
      5. issued 3 times are day
        • each covers 12 hours
        • plus 6 hours of Categorical Outlook
      6. Sections of FA
        1. Header (Communication and Product Header)
          1. Regions and insurance time
          2. statements of what is contained,
          3. synopsis valid time,
          4. forecast time for VMC
          5. States and areas contained in the FA
        2. Precautionary Statement
          1. alert pilots what is NOT contained in this products, such as
            1. IFR Condition
            2. Thunderstorms, severe turbulence, icing, low-level wind shear
          2. also, tells heights are MSL unless they are preceded by AGL or CIG
        3. Synopsis
          • summary of weather in FA: location and movement of front, pressure system, and other
        4. VFR cloud and Weather (CLDS/WX)
          1. MVFR to VFR condition
          2. Widespread wind of 20 kts or more
          3. followed by categorical outlook
        5. Remember that IFR Condition is not in a FA (need to check AIRMET)
      7. Hazardous Weather which meets AIRMET or SIGMET criteria is NOT covered in FA
    4. Wind and Temperature Aloft Forecast
      1. Wind and Temperature forecast for above ground level
        1. 6-digit:
          1. Wind direction in 10 (add 0)
          2. Wind speed
          3. Temperatures in C (no + or - above FL240)
        2. 4-digit (to close to ground, less than 2,500 AGL, no temperature is forecasted)
        3. Wind more than 100 kts, 5 is added on the first digit and means wind is more than 100 kts
        4. less than 5 knots, 9900
      2. Winds are forecasted in TRUE and KTONS
    5. Weather depletion chart (reported, past)
      1. METAR or other reported information is mapped.
      2. sky coverage at stations are shown in little circles
      3. low visibility and significant weather are indicated
      4. MVFR and IFR areas are easily shown
        1. areas are covered by counter lines,
        2. tells pilot areas of MVFR and IFR quickly
      5. Front System are shown
    6. Radar Summary Chart (reported, past)
      1. Graphic Display of radar reports
      2. type, intensity, movement of precipitation, cells and squall lines
      3. This is for PRE-FLIGHT planning only and must cross-checked with other data.
      4. Severe Weather (enclosed by a heavy dashed line)
      5. intensity trend is NOT shown any more
    7. Significant weather prognostic chart (Forecast)
      1. 4 Panel Format (Chart)
        1. UPPER panels are for surface to FL240 (Low Level Chart)
          1. IFR and MVFR Condition
          2. Turbulence
          3. Freezing levels
        2. BOTTOM panels (Surface)
          1. High andLow Pressure System, and Fronts
          2. Type, Intensity and Coverage of Precipitation
        3. LEFT are forecast of 12 hr and RIGHT are 24 hrs after insurance.
      2. There are Short-Range Surface, Low-, Mid-, High-Level Charts are available.
        1. Low Level : upto FL 240 or 400 millibars
        2. Mid-Level : from 10,000 ft MSL to FL 450
        3. High-Level : FL 250 to FL 630
      3. Those charts are avaialbe at AWC (ADDS) Web Site in a separate panel.
    8. other products
      1. Convective Outlook (AC)
      2. Severe Weather Watch Bulletins (WW)
      3. Observed Winds Aloft Charts
      4. Constant Pressure Chart
      5. TWEB (Alaska Only)
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